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सभी MS DOS कमांड्स की लिस्ट ( भाग-1 )

By: एडिटर   22 September, 2012

dos-commands-list-1

ACALC

External – PC DOS 7

Calculates the value of a mathematical expression.
ACALC [/T[:]format] expression

  /T           Specifies the output format type
  format         D=Decimal (default)   B=Binary   O=Octal   X=heXadecimal
                 A=All (decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal)
  expression   Specifies a valid numeric expression.

Numbers prefixed with 'b', 'o', and 'x' are assumed to be binary, octal,
and hexadecimal respectively.  Decimal numbers are not prefixed.

APPEND

External – DOS 3.3 and above

Allows programs to open data files in specified directories as if they were in the current directory.
APPEND [[drive:]path[;...]] [/X[:ON | :OFF]] [/PATH:ON | /PATH:OFF] [/E]
APPEND ;

  [drive:]path Specifies a drive and directory to append.
  /X:ON        Applies appended directories to file searches and
               application execution.
  /X:OFF       Applies appended directories only to requests to open files.
               /X:OFF is the default setting.
  /PATH:ON     Applies appended directories to file requests that already
               specify a path.  /PATH:ON is the default setting.
  /PATH:OFF    Turns off the effect of /PATH:ON.
  /E           Stores a copy of the appended directory list in an environment
               variable named APPEND.  /E may be used only the first time
               you use APPEND after starting your system.

Type APPEND ; to clear the appended directory list.
Type APPEND without parameters to display the appended directory list.

ASSIGN

External – DOS 2.0 and above

Further information: Drive letter assignment
Redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive.
ASSIGN [x[:]=y[:][...]]
ASSIGN /STATUS

  x        Specifies the drive letter to reassign.
  y        Specifies the drive that x: will be assigned to.
  /STATUS  Displays current drive assignments.

Type ASSIGN without parameters to reset all drive letters to original
assignments.

ATTRIB

External – DOS 3.0 and above

Displays or changes file attributes.
ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S]

  +   Sets an attribute.
  -   Clears an attribute.
  R   Read-only file attribute.
  A   Archive file attribute.
  S   System file attribute.
  H   Hidden file attribute.
  /S  Processes files in all directories in the specified path.

BACKUP

External – DOS 2.0 and above

Backs up one or more files from one disk to another.
BACKUP source destination-drive: [/S] [/M] [/A] [/F[:size]]
  [/D:date[/T:time]] [/L[:[drive:][path]logfile]]

  source             Specifies the file(s), drive, or directory to back up.
  destination-drive: Specifies the drive to save backup copies onto.
  /S                 Backs up contents of subdirectories.
  /M                 Backs up only files that have changed since the last
                     backup.
  /A                 Adds backup files to an existing backup disk.
  /F:[size]          Specifies the size of the disk to be formatted.
  /D:date            Backs up only files changed on or after the specified
                     date.
  /T:time            Backs up only files changed at or after the specified
                     time.
  /L[:[drive:][path]logfile]
                     Creates a log file and entry to record the backup
                     operation.

BASIC, BASICA and GW-BASIC

External – DOS 1.0 to DOS 4.0

An implementation of the BASIC programming language for PCs.
IBM computers had Cassette BASIC in ROM; BASIC (Disk BASIC) and BASICA (Advanced BASIC) were extensions to the ROM-based Cassette BASIC.
Microsoft released GW-BASIC for IBM compatible PCs which did not have ROM BASIC. GW-BASIC was a complete BASIC interpreter which was compatible with BASICA. Some OEM releases had BASIC.COM and BASICA.COM as loaders for GW-BASIC.EXE. MS-DOS 5.0 and higher included QBasic instead of GW-BASIC.

BREAK

Internal – DOS 2.0 and above

Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
BREAK [ON | OFF]

Type BREAK without a parameter to display the current BREAK setting.

CALL

Internal – DOS 3.3 and above

Calls one batch program from another.
CALL [drive:][path]filename [batch-parameters]

  batch-parameters   Specifies any command-line information required by the
                     batch program.

CHCP

Internal – DOS 3.3 and above

Displays or sets the active code page number.
CHCP [nnn]

  nnn   Specifies a code page number.

Type CHCP without a parameter to display the active code page number.

CHDIR or CD

Internal – DOS 2.0 and above

Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHDIR [drive:][path]
CHDIR[..]
CD [drive:][path]
CD[..]

  ..   Specifies that you want to change to the parent directory.

Type CD drive: to display the current directory in the specified drive.
Type CD without parameters to display the current drive and directory.

CHKDSK

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V]

  [drive:][path]  Specifies the drive and directory to check.
  filename        Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation.
  /F              Fixes errors on the disk.
  /V              Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk.

Type CHKDSK without parameters to check the current disk.

CHKDSK originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

CHOICE

External – DOS 6.0 and above

Waits for you to choose one of a set of choices.
CHOICE [/C[:]choices] [/N] [/S] [/T[:]c,nn] [text]

/C[:]choices Specifies allowable keys. Default is YN.
/N           Does not display choices and ? at end of prompt string.
/S           Treats choice keys as case sensitive.
/T[:]c,nn    Defaults choice to c after <nn> seconds.
text         Prompts string to display.

ERRORLEVEL is set to offset of key you press in choices.

CLS

Internal – DOS 2.0 and above

Clears the screen.
CLS

COMMAND

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Starts a new copy of the DOS Command Interpreter.
COMMAND [[drive:]path] [device] [/E:nnnnn] [/P [/MSG]]
        [/H] [/O] [/Y [/C command | /K command]]

  [drive:]path    Specifies the directory containing COMMAND.COM file.
  device          Specifies the device to use for command input and output.
  /E:nnnnn        Sets the initial environment size to nnnnn bytes.
  /P              Makes the new Command Interpreter permanent (can't exit).
  /MSG            Stores all error messages in memory (requires /P).
  /H              Loads the Command Interpreter into a UMB if available.
  /O              Disables overwrite prompt on COPY,XCOPY,and MOVE commands.
  /Y              Steps through the batch program specified by /C or /K.
  /C command      Executes the specified command and returns.
  /K command      Executes the specified command and continues running.

The /P and /MSG switches may be used only when COMMAND is started by using
the SHELL command in the CONFIG.SYS file.

/O and /Y are only available in DOS 6 and above. /H is only available in PC DOS 7.

COMMAND.COM originated in 86-DOS.

COMP

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.
COMP [data1] [data2] [/D] [/A] [/L] [/N=number] [/C]

  data1     Specifies location and name(s) of first file(s) to compare.
  data2     Specifies location and name(s) of second files to compare.
  /D        Displays differences in decimal format. This is the default
            setting.
  /A        Displays differences in ASCII characters.
  /L        Displays line numbers for differences.
  /N=number Compares only the first specified number of lines in each file.
  /C        Disregards case of ASCII letters when comparing files.

To compare sets of files, use wildcards in data1 and data2 parameters.

COPY

Internal – DOS 1.0 and above

Copies one or more files to another location.
COPY [/A | /B] source [/A | /B] [+ source [/A | /B] [+ ...]] [destination
  [/A | /B]] [/V] [/Y | /-Y]

  source       Specifies the file or files to be copied.
  /A           Indicates an ASCII text file.
  /B           Indicates a binary file.
  destination  Specifies the directory and/or filename for the new file(s).
  /V           Verifies that new files are written correctly.
  /Y           Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.
  /-Y          Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an
               existing destination file.

The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable.
To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files
for source (using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).

/Y and /-Y are only available in DOS 6 and above.

COPY originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

CTTY

Internal – DOS 2.0 and above

Changes the terminal device used to control your system.
CTTY device

  device   The terminal device you want to use, such as COM1.

DATE

External – DOS 1.0
Internal – DOS 1.1 and above

Displays or sets the date.
DATE [date]

Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and
a prompt for a new one.  Press ENTER to keep the same date.

DEBUG

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Runs Debug, a program testing and editing tool.
DEBUG [[drive:][path]filename [testfile-parameters]]

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies the file you want to test.
  testfile-parameters     Specifies command-line information required by
                          the file you want to test.

After Debug starts, type ? to display a list of debugging commands.

DEBUG originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

DEFRAG

External – DOS 6.0 and above

Further information: Defragmentation
Reorganizes files on disks to optimize performance.
DEFRAG [drive:] [/F] [/Sorder] [/B] [/SKIPHIGH] [/LCD | /BW | /G0]
DEFRAG [drive:] [/U] [/B] [/SKIPHIGH] [/LCD | /BW | /G0]

  [drive:]   Drive letter of disk to be optimized.
  /F         Fully optimizes specified disk.
  /U         Unfragments files, leaving space between files.
  /S         Sort files by specified order.
  order      N  By Name (alphabetic)            E  By extension (alphabetic)
             D  By date & time (earliest first) S  By size (smallest first)
             -  Suffix to reverse order
  /B         Restarts your computer after optimization.
  /SKIPHIGH  Prevents Defrag from using extended or upper memory.
  /LCD       Runs Defrag using an LCD color scheme.
  /BW        Runs Defrag using a black and white color scheme.
  /G0        Disable the graphic mouse and graphic character set.

DEFRAG is a licensed version Norton Utilities Speed Disk.

DEL or ERASE

Internal – DOS 1.0 and above

Deletes one or more files.
DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P]
ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P]

  [drive:][path]filename  Specifies the file(s) to delete.  Specify multiple
                          files by using wildcards.
  /P                      Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.

/P is only available in DOS 5 and above.

ERASE (but not its alias DEL) originated as an internal command in 86-DOS. All versions of DR-DOS support the ERA command as an alias to ERASE / DEL and add ERAQ / DELQ shortcuts identical to the DR-DOS ERA / ERASE / DEL command with the /Q (Query) option given to prompt the user for confirmation.

DELTREE

External – DOS 6.0 and above

Deletes a directory and all the subdirectories and files within it.
To Delete one or more directories:
DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path [[drive:]path[...]]

  /Y              Suppresses prompting to confirm whether you want to
                  delete the subdirectory.
  [drive:]path    Specifies the name of the directory you want to delete.

Note: Use DELTREE with caution. Every file and subdirectory within the
specified directory will be deleted.

DIR

Internal – DOS 1.0 and above

Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.
DIR [drive:][path][filename] [/P] [/W] [/A[[:]attribs]] [/O[[:]sortord]]
    [/S] [/B] [/L]

  [drive:][path][filename]   Specifies drive, directory, and files to list.
  /P      Pauses after each full screen of information.
  /W      Uses wide list format.
  /A      Displays files with specified attributes.
  attribs   D  Directories   R  Read-only files         H  Hidden files
            S  System files  A  Files ready to archive  -  Prefix meaning "not"
  /O      Lists by files in sorted order.
  sortord   N  By name (alphabetic)       S  By size (smallest first)
            E  By extension (alphabetic)  D  By date & time (earliest first)
            G  Group directories first    -  Prefix to reverse order
  /S      Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.
  /B      Uses bare format (no heading information or summary).
  /L      Uses lowercase.

Switches may be preset in the DIRCMD environment variable.  Override
preset switches by prefixing any switch with - (hyphen)--for example, /-W.
To remove the commas from the DIR output, use the NO_SEP environment variable.

Only /P and /W are available prior to DOS 5.

DIR originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

DISKCOMP

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Compares the contents of two floppy disks.
DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/8]

  /1   Compares the first side of the disks.
  /8   Compares only the first eight sectors of each track.

DISKCOPY

External – DOS 1.0 and above

Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.
DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M]

  /1   Copies only the first side of the disk.
  /V   Verifies that the information is copied correctly.
  /M   Force multi-pass copy using memory only.

The two floppy disks must be the same type.
You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.

DOSKEY

External – DOS 5.0 and above

Edits command lines, recalls DOS commands, and creates macros.
DOSKEY [/REINSTALL] [/BUFSIZE=size] [/MACROS] [/HISTORY]
  [/INSERT | /OVERSTRIKE] [macroname=[text]]

  /REINSTALL    Installs a new copy of Doskey.
  /BUFSIZE=size Sets size of command history buffer.
  /MACROS       Displays all Doskey macros.
  /HISTORY      Displays all commands stored in memory.
  /INSERT       Specifies that new text you type is inserted in old text.
  /OVERSTRIKE   Specifies that new text overwrites old text.
  macroname     Specifies a name for a macro you create.
  text          Specifies commands you want to record.

UP and DOWN ARROWS recall commands; ESC clears command line; F7 displays
command history; ALT+F7 clears command history; F8 searches command
history; F9 selects a command by number; ALT+F10 clears macro definitions.

The following are some special codes in Doskey macro definitions:
$T     Command separator.  Allows multiple commands in a macro.
$1-$9  Batch parameters.  Equivalent to %1-%9 in batch programs.
$*     Symbol replaced by everything following macro name on command line.

DRVLOCK

External – PC DOS 5.02 and above

Locks the drive or socket so that media cannot be removed.
DRVLOCK [drive: | socket:] [/ON | /OFF]

        /ON     Sets the lock on.
        /OFF    Sets the lock off.

DRVLOCK is only included with PC DOS versions.

DYNALOAD

External – PC DOS 7

Load a device driver after system startup.
DYNALOAD filename [parameters]

  filename    Specifies the name of the device driver to load.
  parameters  Specifies any parameters for the device driver.

E

External – PC DOS 6.1 and above

Starts PC DOS editor, which creates and changes ASCII files.
E [/Q] [/B] [/S] [/D] [/I] [/C] [/A] [/DM] [/80 |/132] [d:][path][filespec]
  [=filespec] ['command']

  /Q        Turns off display of "Loading .." message.
  /B        Displays files in browse (read-only) mode.
  /S        Uses EMS (or hardfile if no EMS is available) to edit files
            too large for conventional memory.
  /D        Forces file to be loaded from disk.
  /I        Edits STACKER.INI file.
  /C        Edits CONFIG.SYS file.
  /A        Edits AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
  /DM       Disables Mouse.
  /80       Enables 80 column, 16 color text video (CGA/EGA/MCGA/VGA/SVGA/XGA).
  /132      Enables 132 column, 16 color text video (XGA).
 [d:][path][filespec]  Specifies drive, directory, and file to edit.
  =         Is shorthand for "same path as last specified" at the DOS
            prompt, or "same as current file's" at the editor commandline.
            For example, E \PAS\LANG\FOO.PAS =FOO.BAK will load the two
            files FOO.PAS and FOO.BAK, both from the directory \PAS\LANG.
 'command'  Specifies a startup command.  For example, E \FOO.PAS 'ALL /IF'
            will load the file FOO.PAS and then execute the ALL command
            on this file.

Switches may be preset in the E environment variable.

E is only included with PC DOS versions and replaces the MS-DOS editor EDIT.

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